Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. The clause of the Nicene Creed in its western form which asserts that the Holy Ghost proceeds both from the Father and from the Son. The doctrine of the “double procession,” as it is called, has been generally accepted in the Latin Church from a very early period; and this clause was frequently added to the creed before it was authoritatively incorporated in it in the eleventh century. The Greek Church, on the contrary, has always maintained the doctrine of the single procession, as expressed in the original form of the Nicene Creed, in accordance with John xv. 26, “the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father”; and the controversy on this subject (called the Filioque controversy), continued to the present time, was one of the chief causes of the schism between the two churches.
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. (Eccl. Hist.) The Latin for, “and from the Son,” equivalent to
et filio, inserted by the third council of Toledo (a. d. 589) in the clause qui ex Patre procedit(who proceedeth from the Father) of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed (a. d. 381), which makes a creed state that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son as well as from the Father. Hence, the doctrine itself (not admitted by the Eastern Church).
“As a writer on theology he took part in the dispute over the term Filioque (the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son as well as from the Father) and defended this doctrine at the request of Charlemagne in the treatise, "De spiritu sancto".”
“Holy Ghost, we come next to consider the introduction of the expression Filioque into the Creed of Constantinople.”
“These included the removal of the Filioque from the Creed”
“The estrangement found its completion in 1054, when the addition of the word Filioque to the Latin creed, by which the Roman See expressed its belief in the doctrine of the double procession of the Holy Ghost -- from the Father and the Son -- a doctrine against which the Greek Church had emphatically protested, supplied the ground for a renewal of the quarrel which this time resulted in separation complete and final, Pope Leo IX. excommunicating the patriarch of Constantinople.”
“Besides, it is observable, that after Patre the word Filioque was added by the Latin church: and since the Greek church may allege this in their defence, that it is no where in scripture expressly said, that the Spirit proceeds from the Son; this may be further pleaded for them, that in things, the belief of which can have no foundation but the testimony of scripture, it is there safest, precisely and strictly, to adhere to bare scripture-expression.”
“In this and the following fourteen sessions, the Filioque was the sole subject of discussion.”
“In nine consecutive sessions, the Filioque was the chief matter of discussion.”
“The Greeks had often before protested against the pretensions of the Popes of Rome, and now they complained that the Latins had introduced the word "Filioque," meaning”
“In this way the "Filioque" was added to the Nicene and the Tridentine Profession forth in full and definite statements the Catholic Faith on those points especially which the Reformers of the sixteenth century had assailed.”
“The insertion of the "Filioque" clause in the Creed, the procession of the Holy Ghost ab utroque, etc., were so many reasons which were bound to have their effect upon the leading minds when the question of the separation came up.”
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