Definitions

from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • n. In botany, the layer, usually dense, of hyphal tissue immediately beneath the hymenium.

Etymologies

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Examples

  • Thallus of very minute inconspicuous and evanescent, brown-black granules; apothecia minute, 0.2 to 0.4 mm. in diameter, adnate, dark brown to black, scattered or clustered, plain with a thin concolorous exciple visible, to convex with the exciple finally covered; hypothecium dark brown; hymenium pale brown; asci clavate; paraphyses coherent-indistinct; spores oblong-ellipsoid, 9 to 15 mic. long and 5 to

    Ohio Biological Survey, Bull. 10, Vol. 11, No. 6 The Ascomycetes of Ohio IV and V

  • Thallus granulose to verrucose and subareolate, sometimes inconspicuous and evanescent; apothecia minute to middle-sized, adnate or more or less immersed, exciple usually prominent and persistent, but sometimes becoming covered, disk flat to convex; hypothecium and hymenium pale to brown; spores simple, hyaline, minute, numerous in each ascus.

    Ohio Biological Survey, Bull. 10, Vol. 11, No. 6 The Ascomycetes of Ohio IV and V

  • Thallus commonly granulose, and often passing into verrucose and chinky conditions, but scarcely ever areolate, sometimes scant and evanescent; apothecia usually minute or small, and commonly adnate, exciple weak and often becoming covered; hypothecium and hymenium passing from pale through shades of brown, the former becoming darker than the latter, this rarely tinged blue or violet above; spores hyaline, 2-celled.

    Ohio Biological Survey, Bull. 10, Vol. 11, No. 6 The Ascomycetes of Ohio IV and V

  • Thallus granulose, verrucose, or areolate, rather better developed than those of the preceding genera as shown in the more frequent verrucose and areolate conditions; apothecia minute to large, sessile to immersed, the disk and the exciple usually black; hypothecium usually brown; hymenium pale to light brown; paraphyses usually distinct; spores brown,

    Ohio Biological Survey, Bull. 10, Vol. 11, No. 6 The Ascomycetes of Ohio IV and V

  • Thallus usually composed of minute granules, these often run together to form a leprose or verrucose and rarely areolate or even subsquamulose crust, rarely disappearing; apothecia minute or small, usually adnate, with a weak and often covered exciple; hypothecium pale to dark brown; hymenium pale or tinged brown; spores hyaline, usually fusiform or dactyloid, varying from 4 - to 9-celled.

    Ohio Biological Survey, Bull. 10, Vol. 11, No. 6 The Ascomycetes of Ohio IV and V

  • Thallus usually verrucose, areolate or subareolate, tending toward squamulose conditions, better developed than in other members of the family, scarcely ever showing granulate conditions, and never disappearing entirely; apothecia also larger than in the other genera, adnate to immersed, usually black, but rarely white-pruinose; hypothecium usually dark brown; hymenium pale to light brown; spores

    Ohio Biological Survey, Bull. 10, Vol. 11, No. 6 The Ascomycetes of Ohio IV and V

  • Thallus light colored, usually thin and smooth, rarely disappearing; apothecia minute to middle-sized, 0.2 to 1 mm. in diameter, adnate scattered or crowded, flat or slightly convex, the disk pruinose, and the exciple persistent; hypothecium lighter or darker brown; hymenium usually pale; paraphyses coherent and becoming indistinct; asci cylindrico-clavate; spores oblong-ellipsoid, 3 to 5 mic. long and 1 to

    Ohio Biological Survey, Bull. 10, Vol. 11, No. 6 The Ascomycetes of Ohio IV and V

  • A vertical section through an apothecium of _Lecidea rupestris_: a, the hymenium, composed of asci and paraphyses; b, the hypothecium; c, the mycelium, the cells of the algal host, and particles of the limestone on which the plant was growing; d, the weak, light-colored, covered exciple.

    Ohio Biological Survey, Bull. 10, Vol. 11, No. 6 The Ascomycetes of Ohio IV and V

  • Thallus foliose, but smaller and thinner than that of _Peltigera_, and devoid of trichomatic hyphae, more or less closely attached to the substratum by rhizoids; cortex well developed on both upper and lower sides; medulla well developed (Fig. 2); apothecia confined to the lower side of the thallus, marginal on narrow, slightly elongated lobes, thalloid margin persistent and crenate; hypothecium usually some shade of brown; hymenium usually pale below and brown above; paraphyses simple or branched; spores brown, 4-celled, 8 in each ascus.

    Ohio Biological Survey, Bull. 10, Vol. 11, No. 6 The Ascomycetes of Ohio IV and V

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