Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A mass of fragments of river ice piled irregularly by the current, so as to obstruct its flow.
“Mile a dark speck appeared for a moment against the white background of an ice-jam, he cast an anxious eye at the sun.”
“Then they topped an ice-jam and struck a smooth stretch below, where were a number of relay camps and where the snow was packed widely.”
“But midway they encountered an ice-jam which took an hour of heavy work to cross.”
“North, the bite of the frost, all that he had achieved and suffered -- the long, unending weeks of trail, the bleak tundra shore of Point Barrow, the smashing ice-jam of the Yukon, the battles with animals and men, the lean-dragged days of famine, the long months of stinging hell among the mosquitoes of the”
“Accumulated winter precipitation also determines the magnitude of the spring runoff, which controls the severity of breakup and associated ice-jam flooding.”
“A critical hydrologic feature of these systems is the occurrence of ice jams and associated ice-jam floods, both of which are paramount in the maintenance of delta ecosystems .”
“Hence, projected decreases in the frequency and intensity of ice-jam flooding under future climate scenarios would probably cause decreases in the re-flooding of perched basins, negatively affecting muskrat populations in years with low water levels.”
“Thorpe  found that in the Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada, years with observed spring ice-jam flooding (and associated reflooding of perched basins) had high success in local trapping of muskrats.”
“The projection and prevention of ice-jam flooding warrant further study.”
“In contrast, however, reductions in the frequency and severity of ice-jam flooding would have a serious impact on river ecology since the physical disturbances associated with breakup scouring and flooding are very important to nutrient and organic matter dynamics, spring water chemistry, and the abundance and diversity of river biota .”
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how ice is used
Environmental Ice and Snow
(excluding all the food ice)
Geographical and weather-related ice formations and phenomena.
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