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“A comparison between tundra and wet grassland breeding waders with special reference to the Ruff (Philomachus pugnax).”
“An example is the drastic decline of the ruff (Philomachus pugnax) in almost all breeding sites outside the Arctic in contrast to their stable or even increasing populations in some (but not all) northern arctic areas .”
“In the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands the most common waterbirds are white-faced whistling duck (Dendrocygna viduata), garganey (Anas querquedula), northern pintail (Anas acuta), and ruff (Philomachus pugnax).”
“The most abundant bird is the wader ruff (Philomachus pugnax), with more than one million seen on the lake at one time.”
“Recent concerns include the availability of nesting sites for the endangered West African subspecies of black-crowned crane (Balearica pavonina pavonina) and adequate wintering grounds for intercontinental migrants such as the ruff (Philomachus pugnax).”
“Significant populations of Palaearctic birds winter here, with several thousand wigeon (Anas penelope) and shovelers (Anas clypeata) observed in the Bale Mountains, along with waders such as ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) and greenshanks (Tringa nebularia).”
“Adjecisset enim, atque adjiciebat, cæteris virtutibus suis, quod desiderari potest; id est autem, ut esset multo magis pugnax, et sæpius ad curam rerum ab elocutione respiceret.”
“Another great authority on birds, a very patient and skillful observer, Mr. Edmund Selous, remarks, however, in describing the courting habits of the ruffs and reeves (_Machetes pugnax_) that, notwithstanding the passivity of the females beforehand, their movements during and after coitus show that they derive at least as much pleasure as the males.”
“(_Machetes pugnax_) is a pugnacious bird, as his name indicates.”
“The male Ruff (Machetes pugnax) likewise erects its collar of feathers when fighting.”
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