from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- adj. Moving or tending backward.
- adj. Opposite to the usual order; inverted or reversed.
- adj. Reverting to an earlier or inferior condition.
- adj. Astronomy Of or relating to the orbital revolution or axial rotation of a planetary or other celestial body that moves clockwise from east to west, in the direction opposite to most celestial bodies.
- adj. Astronomy Of or relating to the brief, regularly occurring, apparently backward movement of a planetary body in its orbit as viewed against the fixed stars, caused by the differing orbital velocities of Earth and the body observed.
- adj. Archaic Opposed; contrary.
- intransitive v. To move or seem to move backward. See Synonyms at recede1.
- intransitive v. To decline to an inferior state; degenerate.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- adj. Directed backwards, retreating; reverting especially inferior state, declining; inverse, reverse; movement opposite to normal or intended motion, often circular motion.
- adj. Counterproductive to a desired outcome.
- adj. In the opposite direction to the orbited body's spin.
- n. A degenerate person.
- n. The reversal of a melody so that what is played first in the original melody is played last and what is played last in the original melody is played first.
- v. To move backwards; to recede; to retire; to decline; to revert.
- v. To show retrogradation.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- adj. Apparently moving backward, and contrary to the succession of the signs, that is, from east to west, as a planet.
- adj. Tending or moving backward; having a backward course; contrary; ; -- opposed to
- adj. Declining from a better to a worse state
- intransitive v. To go in a retrograde direction; to move, or appear to move, backward, as a planet.
- intransitive v. Hence, to decline from a better to a worse condition, as in morals or intelligence.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- To go backward; move backward.
- To fall back or away; lose ground; decline; deteriorate; degenerate.
- In astronomy, to move westward relatively to the fixed stars.
- In biology, to undergo retrogression, as a plant or an animal; be retrograde or retrogressive; develop a less from a more complex organization; degenerate.
- To cause to go backward; turn back.
- Moving backward; having a backward motion or direction; retreating.
- Specifically, in astronomy, moving backward and contrary to the order of the signs relatively to the fixed stars: opposed to direct. The epithet does not apply to the diurnal motion, since this is not relative to the fixed stars.
- In biology, characterized by or exhibiting degeneration or deterioration, as an organism or any of its parts which passes or has passed from a higher or more complex to a lower or simpler structure or composition; noting such change of organization: as, retrograde metamorphosis or development; a retrograde theory.
- In zoology, habitually walking or swimming backward, as many animals: correlated with laterigrade, gravigrade, saltigrade, etc.
- In botany: Going backward in the order of specialization, from a more to a less highly developed form: referring either to reversions of type or to individual monsters.
- Formerly used of hairs, in the sense of retrorse.
- Losing ground; deteriorating; declining in strength or excellence.
- Contrary; opposed; opposite.
- Change of tissue or substance from the more complex to the simpler composition; catabolism. See metamorphosis.
- n. In billiards, the pull-back, draw, or recoil.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- v. get worse or fall back to a previous condition
- v. go back over
- v. move in a direction contrary to the usual one
- v. move back
- adj. moving or directed or tending in a backward direction or contrary to a previous direction
- adj. moving from east to west on the celestial sphere; or--for planets--around the sun in a direction opposite to that of the Earth
- adj. of amnesia; affecting time immediately preceding trauma
- adj. going from better to worse
- v. move backward in an orbit, of celestial bodies
Middle English, from Latin retrōgradus, from retrōgradī, to go back : retrō-, retro- + -gradus, walking (from gradī, to go; see ghredh- in Indo-European roots).(American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
From Middle English < Latin retrogradus. (Wiktionary)
From Latin retrōgradior or Late Latin retrogredere (retro- ("back") + gradi ("walk")). (Wiktionary)