from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. The dried acorn cups of an oak tree (Quercus aegilops) of the eastern Mediterranean, used chiefly in tanning and dyeing.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. The European evergreen oak, Quercus macrolepis or Quercus aegilops
- n. The dried acorn cups of this tree, that are used to make a black dye, used in tanning
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. The acorn cup of two kinds of oak (Quercus macrolepis, and Quercus vallonea) found in Eastern Europe. It contains an abundance of tannin, and is much used by tanners and dyers.
- n. A genus of marine green algæ, in which the whole frond consists of a single oval or cylindrical cell, often an inch in length.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. The commercial name for the acorn-cups of the valonia-oak, which are imported into Great Britain in large quantities from Asia Minor and Greece for use in tanning, dyeing, and making ink.
The first process -- the making of leather -- does not lie within the scope of this work; suffice it to say, that the hair or fur is first removed by lime, etc, and that after the skin is scraped it is treated variously with oak bark, valonia, sumach, divi-divi, etc.; it is a long and tedious process, and certainly does not lie within the province of
Practical Taxidermy A manual of instruction to the amateur in collecting, preserving, and setting up natural history specimens of all kinds. To which is added a chapter upon the pictorial arrangement of museums. With additional instructions in modelling and artistic taxidermy.
Its main use was and is in combination with valonia as layers for sole leather.
The union of valonia and knoppern is that in most general use.
Its use is almost wholly confined to the handlers, as its weight returns are not so satisfactory as oak or valonia.
The combination of knoppern, valonia and myrabolams is also quite popular, and gives good results.
To sole leather there are usually given from one to three layers of valonia.
The demand for valonia is increasing more and more every year, and the present outlook does not indicate any relaxation of its popularity.
The _Metilino_ valonia is a product of a neighboring island, and is a very good article.
The _Candia_ valonia is nearly as long as it is wide, in contrast to the Smyrna, which is much wider than long.
The best valonia is derived from Smyrna, and is naturally the highest priced article.
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