Definitions
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 proper n. A surname.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
 n. Austrian physicist who contributed to the kinetic theory of gases (18441906)
Etymologies
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Examples

His papers at that time dealt with specific heats of solids, with problems of thermodynamics (he was greatly interested in Boltzmann's probability theory) and of atomic spectra; in addition, he indulged in physiological studies of colour (as a result of his contacts with Kohlrausch and Exner, and of Helmholtz's lectures).

The fact that such brains do not appear to exist is called the Boltzmann Brain Paradox.

Some fundamental, yet mathematically complex, equations of statistical mechanics are now known as Boltzmann equations.

(The modern procedure to put these requirements in a mathematically precise form is that of taking the socalled BoltzmannGrad limit.)

It contained two celebrated results nowadays known as the Boltzmann equation and the

Either the whole planet is a fair evolutionary setup with normal brains only, or the whole planet is fraud and all of its brains should be called Boltzmann brains.

Personally I would bet that a deeper investigation of this theory will show [sorry SC!] that it is actually not able to produce a universe like ours, except by some kind of Boltzmannstyle massive fluctuation.

CV readers, ahead of the curve as usual, are well aware of the notion of Boltzmann’s Brains — see e.g. here, here, and even the original paper here.

[17] This equation is specific to "Boltzmann" machine versions; there are other equations that accomplish the same thing.

Constants, even something as ‘obvious’ as the StefanBoltzmann constant, were something I got introduced to as problems in numerical analysis quite a few years ago.
Open Climate Science or Denial of Service attacks?  Serendipity
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