from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. Any of a group of six elementary particles having electric charges of a magnitude one-third or two-thirds that of the electron, regarded as constituents of all hadrons. See Table at subatomic particle.
- n. A soft creamy acid-cured cheese of central Europe made from whole milk.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. In the Standard Model, an elementary subatomic particle which forms matter. Quarks are never found alone in nature and combine to form hadrons, such as protons and neutrons.
- n. a soft creamy cheese. The Russian quark and Finnish quark are somewhat different. The Russian version is firmer in consistency and contains about 15% milk fat, whereas the Finnish quark often contains less than 1% milk fat.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. Same as quawk.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. fresh unripened cheese of a smooth texture made from pasteurized milk, a starter, and rennet
- n. (physics) hypothetical truly fundamental particle in mesons and baryons; there are supposed to be six flavors of quarks (and their antiquarks), which come in pairs; each has an electric charge of +2/3 or -1/3
Seeing the word "quark" in James Joyce's "Finnegan's Wake" induced him to make the spelling change.
The “beauty” quark is particularly good for probing this question because b-quarks and anti-b-quarks behave “more differently” than other particles and their antimatter counterparts.
The heaviest known elementary particle, the top quark is one of the fundamental building blocks of nature and understood to be an ingredient of the nuclear soup just after the Big Bang.
When the neutrino beam method was invented by the Columbia team at the beginning of the 1960s the quark concept was still unknown, and the method has only later become important in quark research.
But to understand the structure of the new psi particle a fourth quark is very likely necessary, in the opinion of many researchers.
The result is what researchers call a quark-gluon plasma QGP, which hasn't been present in significant quantities since shortly after the origin of the Universe.
In both cases, the top quark is short-lived and decays, for example, into a bottom quark, a lepton (such as a muon) and a neutrino.
Actually, the word quark is in the OED as a verb meaning ` croak, 'with 19th-century references to frogs, rooks, and herons.
He is perhaps best known for borrowing the word quark from James Joyce's Finnegans Wake ( "Three quarks for Muster Mark") and giving it a radically new meaning.
Had Gell-Mann been a Lewis Carroll enthusiast, he might have named his hypothetical particles snarks; but instead he borrowed the word quark from James Joyce's Finnegans Wake.