from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition.

  • A city of western Kazakhstan at the mouth of the Ural River on the Caspian Sea. Founded in 1645 as a military outpost, it was a fishing port until the development of the region's petroleum resources in the 1930s. The city was named Guryev until 1992.


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  • In Kazakhstan, western Atyrau and Mangistau Regions bordering the Caspian Sea are major producers of oil and natural gas, with production rapidly increasing.

    Caspian lowland desert

  • Also, an existing northbound pipeline from Atyrau in Kazakhstan to Samara in Russia has been upgraded, but is expected to become relatively less significant if throughput at CPC increases.

    Energy profile of the Caspian Sea region

  • The three refineries in Atyrau, Pavlodar and Shymkent are still unable to meet domestic demand and export requirements, which explains why Kazakstan still imports a quarter of the fuel and lubricants it consumes from Russia, where these items cost more.

    Kazaks Struggle With Oil and Food Prices

  • The 200,000-bbl/d Kazakhstan-China pipeline, when all three stages are complete, will span almost 1,860 miles from its start in Atyrau to Alashankou in China.

    Energy profile of the Caspian Sea region

  • The refinery at Pavlodar is supplied mainly by a crude oil pipeline from western Siberia (since Russian reserves are well placed geographically to serve that refinery); the Atyrau refinery runs solely on domestic crude from northwest Kazakhstan; and the Shymkent refinery currently uses oil from Kazakh fields at Kumkol, Aktyubinsk, and Makatinsk, although it is linked by pipeline to Russia.

    Energy profile of Kazakhstan

  • Kazakhstan's other major oil export pipeline, from Atyrau to Samara, is a northbound link to the Russian distribution system.

    Energy profile of Kazakhstan

  • A $370 million repairs and reconstruction effort at the Atyrau refinery by Marubeni Corporation (Japan) began in 2004 and was completed in September 2006.

    Energy profile of Kazakhstan

  • In April 2003, a pipeline spur southward to Atyrau was completed that connects the Karachaganak field to Kazakhstan's primary export pipeline, the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) project.

    Energy profile of Kazakhstan

  • The refining sector in Kazakhstan has three major oil refineries supplying the northern region (at Pavlodar), western region (at Atyrau), and southern region (at Shymkent), with total crude oil refining capacity of 345,093 bbl/d.

    Energy profile of Kazakhstan

  • As the CPC project grows with Kazakh production, absolute volumes though Atyrau-Samara are expected to grow, but this pipeline will become relatively less significant.

    Energy profile of Kazakhstan


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