from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- proper n. A taxonomic genus within the family Brassicaceae — the bittercress plants.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. A genus of cruciferous plants, containing the lady's-smock, cuckooflower, bitter cress, meadow cress, etc.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A genus of annual or perennial pungent herbs, natural order Cruciferæ, natives of the cooler regions of the northern hemisphere, with leaves usually pinnate and racemes of white or purple flowers.
- n. A plant of the genus Cardamine (which see).
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. bittercress, bitter cress
Sorry, no etymologies found.
Again, why do some plants flower sooner at such elevations than at other lower places? such as Cardamine, here past flower, but not commencing at Cabul; is it because this plant will flower in the winter in Cabul? so there may be a law requiring such plants to flower in wintery situations by a certain time?
Mertens et al. showed that the seeds or spores of various plants (Cardamine, Taraxacum, Adiantum, etc.), the cysts of the crustaceans Branchipus schaefferi (fairy shrimp) and Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) as well as adult bdelloid rotifers and tardigrades survived exposures to temperatures as high as 130 °C for as long as 10 min.
Threatened, endemic and protected plants include Cardamine chelido, Cypripedium calceolus, Daphne blagayana, Lilium bulbiferum, L. carniolicum, Primula kitaibeliana, P. wulfeniana, Ruscus hypoglossum and Paeonia mascula.
Nemoral Eurasia relicts include: Carex silvatica, Polystichum braunii, Cardamine impatiens, Lislera ovata, and Asperula odorata.
Tertiary relicts are: Cardamine impatiens, Festuca gigantea, and Circaea lutetiana.
I think your unknown weed may be hairy bittercress Cardamine hirsuta.
The Cuckoo flower, or "Ladies 'Smock" (Cardamine) from _Cardia damao_, "I strengthen the heart," is another wholesome Cress with the same sensible properties as the Water-cress, only in an inferior degree, while the strong pungency of its flavour prevents it from being equally popular.
It is a suitable plant for the moist parts of rockwork, where it may be grown with such things as _Cardamine trifolia_, _Galax aphylla_, _Pyrola rotundifolia_, and _Salix reticulata_, and it would form a rich edging to choice dwarf plants, more especially if the position were gutter-formed, as it loves moisture in abundance.
_Diplotaxis tenuifolia_,  St. Hilaire in _Cardamine hirsuta_, others in _C. sylvatica_.
The author just quoted cites examples of this kind in _Cardamine pratensis_, _Hedera Helix_, _Plantago major_, _Geranium nodosum_.