from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- proper n. Mandarin, group of Northern Chinese dialects including Putonghua - standard Chinese.
Before 1911, and even now sometimes, it was called Guanhua, a term which unlike "Mandarin" does not connote emperors, queues or other objects of chinoiserie.
The decisive evidence would be a sentence like *" his parents can speak Cantonese and Hakka, but no Guanhua, although they do understand it pretty much."
Secretary Bodman and China's Minister of Science and Technology (MOST) Xu Guanhua pledged to continue work to advance clean renewable energy technologies through discussions on market potential and commercialization and methods and results of research and development.
Because of his ties with Mao Tse-tung's widow, Gang of Four Leader Jiang Qing, Guanhua became one of the highest-ranking officials sidelined by the new government of pragmatists that rose to power after Mao's death in 1976.
A worldly, seasoned diplomat and close ally of the late Premier Chou Enlai, Guanhua, was known for his wide-ranging intelligence and acerbic wit.
Qiao Guanhua, 70, Foreign Minister of the People's Republic of China from 1974-76 who played a crucial role in improving his country's relations with the U.S. before he was dismissed from office for his alleged connections with the purged radical faction, the Gang of Four; of lung cancer; in Peking.