from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  • A Semitic people who invaded Egypt and ruled it during the 17th and 16th centuries B.C. They introduced the horse and chariot into Egypt.

from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • n. A dynasty of Egyptian kings, often called the Shepherd kings, of foreign origin, who, according to the narrative of Manetho, ruled for about 500 years, forming the XVth and XVIth dynasties. It is now considered that the XVIth is merely a double of the XVth dynasty, and that the total period of the six Hyksos kings was little more than 100 years. It is supposed that they were Asiatic Semites.


Sorry, no etymologies found.


  • Basing his accounts on unnamed “sacred books” and “popular tales and legends,” Manetho described a massive, brutal invasion of Egypt by foreigners from the east, whom he called Hyksos, an enigmatic Greek form of an Egyptian word that he translated as “shepherd kings” but that actually means “rulers of foreign lands.”

    The Bible Unearthed

  • The very term Hyksos is suggestive in this connection.

    Myths of Babylonia and Assyria

  • A people known as the Hyksos later seized control of the northern Nile valley, but the New Kingdom arose in the middle of the second millennium B.C. and extended its power all the way to the Euphrates River.

    Alexander the Great

  • As a junior officer, he had quickly realized that the Hyksos were the new masters of Egypt and that their work must be facilitated as much as possible.

    The War of the Crowns

  • The Hyksos was a master of trickery and manipulation, and it would not be easy to lie to him.

    The War of the Crowns

  • Peace with the Hyksos was the cornerstone of Naja's vision, a vision of the two kingdoms reunited and a single pharaoh ruling both.


  • His celebrated ride from Thebes to Elephantine to carry the news of the victory of Pharaoh Tamose over the Hyksos was the stuff of legend.


  • In other areas it seemed that the Hyksos were a backward people.

    River God

  • Most of the scholars who have published work on them agree that the Theran frescoes portray a highly sophisticated and cosmopolitan society reflecting Minoan, Egyptian and Levantine influences, and we now know that they were painted at a time when the Hyksos were the dominant power in the latter two regions.

    An Exchange on 'Black Athena'

  • This is known as the Hyksos invasion, or the invasion of the Shepherd Kings, and produced the same effects in Egypt as the

    Roman Mosaics Or, Studies in Rome and Its Neighbourhood


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