from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  • adj. Of or belonging to the geologic time, system of rocks, or sedimentary deposits of the seventh and last period of the Paleozoic Era, characterized by the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea, the rise of conifers, and the diversification of reptiles and ending with the largest known mass extinction in the history of life. See Table at geologic time.
  • n. The Permian Period.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

  • adj. Of a geologic period within the Paleozoic era; comprises the Cisuralian, Guadalupian and Lopingian epochs from about 280 to 248 million years ago.
  • proper n. The Permian period.
  • n. One of a branch of the Finno-Ugric peoples, including Komis and Udmurts, who speak Permic languages.

from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • adj. Belonging or relating to the period, and also to the formation, next following the Carboniferous, and regarded as closing the Carboniferous age and Paleozoic era.

from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • Relating to the city or government of Permin eastern Russia.
  • 2. Relating to the Permians.
  • 3. An epithet applied by Murchison and his coadjutors in a geological reconnaissance of a part of Russia, in 1841, to a group of strata overlying the Carboniferous, and forming the uppermost division of the Paleozoic series.
  • n. An inhabitant of Perm; also, one of a Finnic people dwelling in eastern Russia, chiefly in the government of Perm.

from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.

  • n. from 280 million to 230 million years ago; reptiles


from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

After Perm Oblast, a region of west-central Russia.


  • For hundreds of millions of years they dominated the planet; during their later years some species took on a bizarre, grotesque appearance, with huge spiny protuberances and great bulging eyes, giving them the look of visitors from another planet; and then, abruptly, in the era that we call the Permian, they disappeared completely from the world.

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  • Twelve thousand feet of sand, limestone, and silica were left behind by the sea’s ebb, collecting in what is known as the Permian Basin.

    Spoken from the Heart

  • "The Permian is a very significant asset in our North America portfolio."

    Chevron Rekindles Old Texas Flame

  • The Permian was a time of pronounced changes in plant and animal life, and a transitional period between two great eras.

    The Elements of Geology

  • These marks of decay in the marine life continue into the beds just after the Carboniferous, known as the Permian, which are really the last stages of the coal-bearing period.

    Young Folks' Library, Volume XI (of 20) Wonders of Earth, Sea and Sky

  • Researchers at the University of Calgary have discovered evidence suggesting that massive volcanic eruptions at the time burnt significant volumes of coal, producing choking clouds of ash and dust that had broad impact on global oceans, and may explain the massive devastation, an event known as the Permian extinction.

  • Permian, which is named for the geologic period that ran from about 290 million to 250 million years ago, focuses on what it deems undervalued companies, mostly in Western Europe. --

  • The mammal-like reptiles, or Therapsids had first appeared about 285 million years ago near the beginning of the Permian, which is well before the dinosaurs.

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  • Ninety percent of marine and 70 percent of terrestrial creatures perished suddenly in an event variously called the Permian extinction, the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) extinction, or the Great Dying.

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  • This is what is known as the Permian-Triassic Extinction, but sometimes it will simply be referred to as the Great Dying.



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