Definitions
from The Century Dictionary.
 Of or pertaining to Pythagoras, a Greek philosopher (perhaps 532
b. c. ), or the school founded at Crotona (modern Cotrone), in Italy.  noun A follower of Pythagoras, the founder of the Italic sect of philosophers.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English.
 adjective Of or pertaining to Pythagoras (a Greek philosopher, born about 582 b. c.), or his philosophy.
 adjective (Geom.) the theorem that the square described upon the hypothenuse of a plane rightangled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares described upon the other two sides.
 adjective (Astron.) the commonly received system of astronomy, first taught by Pythagoras, and afterward revived by Copernicus, whence it is also called the
Copernican system .  adjective See
Y.  noun A follower of Pythagoras; one of the school of philosophers founded by Pythagoras.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License.
 noun A person who believes in or advocates
Pythagoreanism .  adjective Of or relating to Pythagoras.
 adjective Of or relating to
Pythagoreanism .  adjective Of or relating to a Pythagorean, Pythagoreans.
 adjective archaic
vegetarian
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
 adjective of or relating to Pythagoras or his geometry
Etymologies
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License
Examples

"The formula X2 plus Y2 equals Z, when graphed represents a perfect circle with a radius of Z, as described in what we call the Pythagorean Theorem," he said.

"Well," said Éloise, after a moment's wondering pause, in which she had taken time to reflect that Mrs. Arles's corner of the estate was carried on faultlessly, "it is too bad to vex you with my matters, when you have as much as you can do in the house, yourself,"  and relapsed into what she called her Pythagorean errors.

First, anyone identified as a Pythagorean by an early source uncontaminated by the Neopythagorean glorification of Pythagoras (see below) can be regarded as a Pythagorean.

Souls, at this period, were being transmigrated in Pythagorean fashion.

It was often at this time referred to as the Pythagorean theory, and it had been taught, I believe, by Aristarchus.

So important was it thought to have "sound learning" guarded and "safe science" taught, that in many of the universities, as late as the end of the seventeenth century, professors were forced to take an oath not to hold the "Pythagorean"  that is, the Copernican  idea as to the movement of the heavenly bodies.
A History of the warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom

Long before Alexander, the Babylonians had discovered how to use complex fractions, quadratic equations, and what would come to be known as the Pythagorean theorem.

Long before Alexander, the Babylonians had discovered how to use complex fractions, quadratic equations, and what would come to be known as the Pythagorean theorem.

Long before Alexander, the Babylonians had discovered how to use complex fractions, quadratic equations, and what would come to be known as the Pythagorean theorem.

In Fragment 6a Philolaus goes on to describe this harmony and what he describes is a musical scale, the scale known as the Pythagorean diatonic, which was used later by Plato in the Timaeus in the construction of the world soul.
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