from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. The syncretistic philosophy expounded by Pythagoras, distinguished chiefly by its description of reality in terms of arithmetical relationships.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. the esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. The doctrines of Pythagoras or the Pythagoreans.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. Same as Pythagorism.
It's what you call Pythagoreanism, isn't it? if I haven't forgotten my philosophy. "
This long defense of Platonism and Pythagoreanism against Aristotle's incisive criticism is by far the most instructive part of Syrianus 'work.
It is, in fact, not difficult to see how Pythagoreanism may have furthered the expansion of ˜soul™.
Pythagoreanism was concerned with, among other things, the continued existence of the person (or something suitably person-like) after death.
But given Numenius 'attachment to Pythagoreanism (on which see below, Numenius' Platonism) it may also be the case that in this work Numenius presented doctrines that Pythagoreans traditionally ascribed to Pythagoras, such as the immortality of the soul, as Plato's own (see Dillon 1988, 121).
The stress on Plato's Pythagoreanism on the part of Pythagoreans revives and extends connections between Plato's metaphysics and Pythagorean ideas noted already by Plato's younger associates.
Aristotle specifically identifies the Pythagoreanism that he discusses as contemporary with or a little earlier than the atomists (Metaph. 985b23 ff.).
One begins already in Plato's Academy and treats Pythagoreanism as largely identical with later Platonic thought, including the postulation of the one and the indefinite dyad as first principles (1972a, 53-83).
The second tradition is represented by Aristotle, who presents fifth-century Pythagoreanism as having had some influence on Plato but as radically different from Plato in making no distinction between the intelligible and sensible world (1972a, 28-52).
He only refers to Philolaus once by name, and that is in relation to an apothegm which has no obvious connection to his general presentation of Pythagoreanism (EE 1225a30 = Fr. 16).