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from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  • Tzu Hsi 1835-1908. The dowager empress of China (1861-1908) who was hostile to foreign influences in China and supported the Boxer Rebellion (1898-1900).


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  • Yet although the emperor recognized her intelligence and she did have the credit of mothering his first son, the woman who would one day be known as Tzu Hsi did not have his affection.

    The Pawprints of History

  • Min's other works have included Empress Orchid and The Last Empress, two historical fiction novels about the fabled Chinese Empress Tzu Hsi, also known as Empress Orchid whose life, like Min's is pretty extraordinary.

    Archive 2010-07-01

  • The Manchu dynasty never recovered from the Western invasion, and Tzu Hsi—who died in 1908—would be the last Empress of China.

    Devil Dog

  • Named Tzu Hsi known as Cixi, she rose from being a concubine of the fifth rank to the most powerful person in China.

    The Last Empress

  • Under the terms of the treaty, Tzu Hsi returned to the Forbidden City.

    The Pawprints of History

  • Tzu Hsi, however, was not born of royalty and so could not claim any association with the Buddha.

    The Pawprints of History

  • When various government officials and delegations delivered their reports or made their requests, Tzu Hsi, who sat behind the screen, heard what was said and then told the child emperor what to say in return.

    The Pawprints of History

  • However there was neither the time nor enough vehicles and personnel to save them all, so rather than having these sacred dogs fall into the hands of the profane foreigners Tzu Hsi ordered that none of the remaining dogs be left alive.

    The Pawprints of History

  • Thus Tzu Hsi began her third regency, if you can use the word regency for assuming the full rights of government.

    The Pawprints of History

  • Tzu Hsi was furious at this and ordered that all of the foreigners in China should be put to death.

    The Pawprints of History


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