from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. Grammar A construction in which a noun or noun phrase is placed with another as an explanatory equivalent, both having the same syntactic relation to the other elements in the sentence; for example, Copley and the painter in The painter Copley was born in Boston.
- n. Grammar The relationship between such nouns or noun phrases.
- n. A placing side by side or next to each other.
- n. Biology The growth of successive layers of a cell wall.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. A construction in which one noun or noun phrase is placed with another as an explanatory equivalent, either having the same syntactic function in the sentence.
- n. The relationship between such nouns or noun phrases.
- n. The quality of being side-by-side, apposed instead of being opposed, not being front-to-front but next to each other.
- n. A placing of two things side by side, or the fitting together of two things.
- n. In biology, the growth of successive layers of a cell wall.
- n. Appositio
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. The act of adding; application; accretion.
- n. The putting of things in juxtaposition, or side by side; also, the condition of being so placed.
- n. The state of two nouns or pronouns, put in the same case, without a connecting word between them; as, I admire Cicero, the orator. Here, the second noun explains or characterizes the first.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- A public disputation or examination: now used only as a name of Speech Hay in St. Paul's School, London.
- n. The act of adding to or together; a setting to; application; a placing together; juxtaposition.
- n. In grammar: The relation to a noun (or pronoun) of another noun, or in some cases of an adjective or a clause, that is added to it by way of explanation or characterization.
- n. The relation of two or more nouns (or a noun and pronoun) in the same construction, under the above conditions.
- n. . In rhetoric, the addition of a parallel word or phrase by way of explanation or illustration of another.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. a grammatical relation between a word and a noun phrase that follows
- n. (biology) growth in the thickness of a cell wall by the deposit of successive layers of material
- n. the act of positioning close together (or side by side)
An alternative for 4a, assuming we mean Alia Shawkat to be in apposition, is to repeat the preposition:
"Choirs" is so obviously in apposition with "boughs" in the line above ( "Upon those boughs which shake against the cold") that I wonder how anyone could think to take it otherwise than "I am now an old man who not so very long ago was much like a blossoming tree in whose boughs birds warbled sweetly."
Thus the clause, "things which are not" (are regarded as naught), is in apposition with "foolish ... weak ... base (that is, lowborn) and despised things."
Rather, "the glory of the country" is in apposition with "cities" which immediately precedes, and the names of which presently follow.
This verse is not, as some read it, in apposition with "the end of their conversation" (Heb 13: 7), but forms the transition.
Ec 1: 12 shows that "king of Jerusalem" is in apposition, not with "David," but
I, even my hands -- so Hebrew (Ps 41: 2), "Thou ... thy hand" (both nominatives, in apposition).
I-- literally, "I ... my soul," in apposition; the faithful Jews here speak individually.
Arabs are hereby referred to (compare Jer 25: 23; 49: 32), as the words in apposition show, "that dwell in the wilderness." uncircumcised ... uncircumcised in the heart -- The addition of "in the heart" in Israel's case marks its greater guilt in proportion to its greater privileges, as compared with the rest.
What an empty boast seems that Romanus civis declaration of Lord Palmerston when put in apposition with the history of British transactions with the first of Spanish American Republics!