biotransformation love



from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  • n. Chemical alteration of a substance within the body, as by the action of enzymes.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

  • n. The changes (both chemical and physical) that occur to a substance (especially a drug) by the actions of enzymes within an organism


Sorry, no etymologies found.


  • Metabolism, also known as biotransformation, is a major factor in determining toxicity.


  • In 1968, he received a PhD from the University of Manchester in the UK, for "research on the biotransformation of amylobarbitone in healthy adults and patients with chronic renal insufficiency."

    James Love: Dr K. Balasubramaniam Will Be Missed

  • At low doses, a xenobiotic may follow a biotransformation pathway that detoxifies the substance.


  • This can be important since the degree of biotransformation, storage, and elimination (and thus toxicity) can be influenced by the time course and path taken by the chemical as it moves through the body.

    Distribution of toxicants in the body

  • In addition, biotransformation and elimination of a chemical may not be simple processes but subject to different rates as the blood levels change.

    Distribution of toxicants in the body

  • Phase I biotransformation reactions are simple reactions as compared to Phase II reactions.


  • The example of the biotransformation of procaine (local anesthetic) which is hydrolyzed to two smaller chemicals is illustrated below:


  • For this reason, determination of biotransformation of drugs and other chemicals using laboratory animals is an accepted procedure in safety testing.


  • Dose level can affect the nature of the biotransformation.


  • In certain situations, the biotransformation may be quite different at high doses versus that seen at low dose levels.



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