from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. The outlet from a dam or reservoir.
- n. A cut to divert the flow of water.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. The outlet from a dam or reservoir; also, a cut to divert the flow of water.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A channel cut to convey the surplus water from a reservoir or an aqueduct, and prevent overflow. Also called by-lead.
Sorry, no etymologies found.
The water by-wash is 7 ft. below the crest, and the dam is 26 ft. broad at the crest and 216 ft. at the base.
The by-wash is 6 ft. below the crest, which is about the average difference.
It is built on the curve to a radius of 440 ft., and the length of the dam measured along the crest is 546 ft., of which 197 ft. is by-wash, thus describing nearly one-fifth of a circle, and consequently well designed to resist pressure.
Bilberry reservoir at Holmfirth, near Huddersfield, which had never been filled previous to the day of its failure, and arose from the dam having sunk, and being allowed to remain at a level actually below that of the by-wash; so that when the storm occurred, the dam was topped and destroyed.
The by-wash is cut in the solid rock altogether clear of the dam; the outlet culverts, however, are carried under the bank.
The height of the dam was 116.7 ft. and was provided with a by-wash of 394 ft. in length, and outlets for irrigation formed by four cast iron pipes of 31½ in. diameter through the dam.
The embankment had scarcely been completed when, on March 11, 1864, a storm of rain came on and nearly filled it up to the by-wash, when the bank began slowly to subside.
The profile was calculated from Delocre's formula, and was correct in this respect, supposing the by-wash to have been sufficient.
The sandbank now showed as an isolated patch about two hundred yards wide and perhaps half a mile long, with what looked like a by-wash channel of about one hundred yards wide flowing between it and the mainland, the latter being a sandy beach backed by sand dunes clothed with a rank creeper-like vegetation, and a few stunted tree tops showing behind them.
Immediately within the embankment, on the right side of the streamlet, is the empty tower or by-wash, that dismal monument of culpable negligence.