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The AFP's bind to ice steps along the a-axes of an ice crystal, so that spicular growth is growth that is restricted to the c-axis.
Further cooling will lead to more rapid accumulations along the c-axis compared to the a-axes, leading to spicular crystals.
In graphite, the c-axis (out of plane) thermal conductivity is over a factor of ~100 smaller due to the weak binding forces between basal planes as well as the larger
The five-axis milling heads feature nonstop rotation in the c-axis, a-axis rotation up to