were invented in Britain in 1933. Other terms used are "reflecting roadstuds", "raised pavement markers", and "Bott's dots", though apparently Bott's dots need not be reflective.
Other meanings for cat's eye: it's a planetary nebula. It also refers to the reflective property of certain gemstones, sometimes called chatoyancy. And, of course, cat's eyes are one of the most valuable kinds of marbles.