from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. The portion of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus but does not incorporate the dendrites or axon. Also called soma1.
Sorry, no etymologies found.
Neurotransmitters and certain enzymes are carried from the cell body through microtubules (c); along the axon (d); into the end bulb (e); and into small, spherical sacs called synaptic vesicles (f ) whose position along the membrane is controlled by the genes.
In time spans measured in a few thousandths of a second, the excess is absorbed by the axon terminal and the remainder decomposed by enzymes, catalytic proteins fashioned way back in the cell body from DNA-held information that is transcribed via mRNA via ribosomes and tRNA, and so on and so on, and then released into the extracellular plasma to be on hand just in case it is needed to reduce the complex neurotransmitter molecule to its component parts.
The Golgi are budlike globular beauties of nature that package the neurotransmitters at their point of manufacture in the cell body and then, with the help of motor proteins, transport them and other essential molecules from within the cell body, down the axon, to the location of use near the cell membrane.
A single large element extending outward from the other end of the cell body is called the axon d.