from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • n. A species of oak (Quercus cerris) native in the Orient and southern Europe; -- called also bitter oak and Turkey oak.

from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • n. The European bitter oak, Quercus Cerris.


Sorry, no etymologies found.


  • At higher altitudes (around 700 m) Quercus ithaburensis, Q. cerris, Q. brantii, and Q. infectoria ssp. boissieri form deciduous woodland communities.

    Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests

  • Mixed deciduous oak forests of Quercus robur, Q. cerris, Carpinus betulus, Ulmus minor, and Fraxinus ornus once occurred throughout the ecoregion.

    Po Basin mixed forests

  • The vegetation of the Carpathians displays a pronounced zonation: the foothills are mostly covered by mixed deciduous forests, dominated by pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), lime (Tilia cordata) and hornbean (Carpinus betulus) in the north, and by various oak species (Quercus sessilis, Q. cerris, Q. pubescens, Q. frainetto) in the south.

    Carpathian montane conifer forests

  • At medium elevations, mixed deciduous forests (Quercus cerris, Q. pubescens, Q. frainetto, Castanea sativa, Ostrya carpinifolia) predominate.

    Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests

  • Dominant deciduous species include: hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia), oak (Quercus cerris, Q. libani, Q. trojana, Q. petrea ssp. pinnatiloba), and many maple species (Acer hyrcanum, A. platonoides, A. campestre, and A. monspessulanum).

    Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests

  • Quercus cerris, Q. ithaburensis ssp. macrolepis, and Q. cocifera are the most common oak species in these forests.

    Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests

  • Among the various species of this genus, Q. cerris is the most widespread in the forests.

    Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests

  • In the eastern areas around 1,000 m, it forms mixed stands with Quercus cerris, Q. pubescens, and Q. robur ssp. robur.

    Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests

  • These forests are distinguished by an outstanding diversity of deciduous oak species including Quercus frainetto, Q. pubescens, Q. cerris, Q. robur, and Q. petraea, as well as other deciduous broadleaf species such as Carpinus betulus, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus minor, Tilia spp.,

    Dinaric Mountains mixed forests

  • Q. cerris is a source of oak manna (gaz or gazu much) used to make a sweet-meat in Iran.

    Chapter 5


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