Definitions
from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
 n. In a right triangle, the ratio of the length of the side adjacent to an acute angle to the length of the hypotenuse.
 n. The abscissa at the endpoint of an arc of a unit circle centered at the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system, the arc being of length x and measured counterclockwise from the point (1, 0) if x is positive or clockwise if x is negative.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License
 n. In a right triangle, the ratio of the length of the side adjacent to an acute angle to the length of the hypotenuse. Symbol: cos
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
 n. The sine of the complement of an arc or angle. See Illust. of functions.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
 n. In trigonom., the sine of the complement of a given angle (whose cosine it is).
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
 n. ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle
Etymologies
Sorry, no etymologies found.
Examples

Measuring Relational Similarity with VSM The measure of similrity of R1 and R2 is given by the cosine of the angle Ɵ between r1 and r2: cosine = ∑ r1, i. r2, i = r1. r2 = r1. r2

So, if the current is sinusoidal, you know the derivative of a sine to be a cosine, which is 90° out of phase.

Did you know that it's possible to calculate a cosine even if you think "cosine" is a brand of nasal decongestant?

Starting from algebraic operations and simple analytical functions such as sine and cosine, the algorithm randomly recombines previous equations and parameters, and tests each set of expressions for accuracy against the empirical data, until it reaches a desired level of accuracy.

He reminded me of sine and cosine and complementary angles, all of which were things I believed in and knew to be true.

And so the sine and cosine are both negative multiples of their own second derivatives (in fact, the factor is – 1).

Laboring in the House of Wisdom, alKhwarizmi, a Persian by birth, combined the geometry of triangles and spheres with the verbal elaboration of equations to work out the first sine and cosine tables.

The SFUs are optimised for sine/cosine/sqrt/exp operations, all common in scientific computing.

And so the sine and cosine are both negative multiples of their own second derivatives in fact, the factor is–1.

“Your second question is: If e to the ix equals the cosine of x plus i times the sine of x, i being the imaginary unit, then how can you represent a point, z, in the complex plane?”
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