Definitions
from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition.
 noun A statistical measure of the tendency of two random variables to vary in the same direction (called positive covariance) or in an opposite direction (called negative covariance) over many observations. Covariance is equal to the summed products of the deviations of corresponding values of the two variables from their respective means.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English.
 noun a statistical measure of the relationship of two variables, formed by multiplying the difference of each variable from its mean, both variables being measured at the same time, and averaging all such products.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License.
 noun statistics A
statistical measure defined as given tworeal valuedrandom variables X and Y, withexpected values and .  noun computing, programming The
conversion ofdata types from wider to narrower in certain situations.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
 noun (statistics) the mean value of the product of the deviations of two variates from their respective means
Etymologies
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Examples

If so, this would explain the reference to a "correlation matrix" in their article and could also be reconciled with the use of the term covariance matrix in the email.

The term "standardization" is also used in dendroclimatology to describe the process of making tree ring chronologies, so I think that the terms covariance and correlation PCs are more precise.

That is the conception of intelligence among scientists who study human intelligence: The abstract theoretical construct to which this covariance is attributed.

Correction of inaccurate renderings would also require removing all references to MM “presenting” an alternative reconstruction; removing all reference to MM or MBH “centering conventions” and using neutral language such as covariance matrix, correlation matrix, or uncentered; removing all reference to tree ring chronologies being “unstandardized” since they are all prestandardized; etc.

I’m sure you know that R2 is pretty widely defined as the covariance squared divided by the product of the two variances.

Markowitz reasoned that what matters is the riskiness of the portfolio rather than its components, and that the riskiness of the portfolio depended, not so much upon the riskiness of its components, as upon their covariance, meaning the tendency of their prices rise and fall in concert.

These are given by the elements of the variancecovariance matrix of β (aka the covariance matrix of

To fully utilize the panel design of the Faith Matters surveys, we used both change score and analysis of covariance ANCOVA models, the two most common methods used to analyze twowave panel data.2 The two approaches differ in how they adjust for initial differences in the outcome variable.

Finally, George R. Price's theory of group selection via covariance (as championed by David Sloan Wilson) asserts that selection can also act at the level of groups, as well as individuals.

The covariance of most assets is currently extremely high because of debt levels that are also near their apogee.
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