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  • Results elsewhere have indicated that field-independent hospital managers preferred to use participative and delegative, rather than directive, leadership styles, although more managers as a whole were field-dependent than were field-independent on the Group Embedded Figures Test.

    The Bass Handbook of Leadership

  • The active delegative leader remains concerned and will follow up to see if the role has been enacted or the task has been successfully completed.

    The Bass Handbook of Leadership

  • Even the extent to which managers are directive tends to correlate positively with the extent to which they are manipulative or negotiative, .25; consultative, .31; participative, .28; and delegative, .13.

    The Bass Handbook of Leadership

  • That is, consultative managers also tend to be highly participative and delegative.

    The Bass Handbook of Leadership

  • This was so despite the fact that, as was noted in Chapter 14, both the authority to be directive and the authority to be delegative increase as one rises in the organizational hierarchy Stogdill & Shartle, 1955.

    The Bass Handbook of Leadership

  • Managers with more power and information than their subordinates were most directive; managers with more power but less information were most consultative; managers with more information but less power were most negotiative; managers with less power and information were most delegative.

    The Bass Handbook of Leadership

  • There are three distinct styles of leadership: authoritarian, participative, and delegative.

    22. There is no one best leadership style. You need to adapt your style to fit the needs of each person23

  • Lewin's three basic leadership styles - authoritative, participative, and delegative


  • Among five styles of leadership—(1) directive, (2) manipulative, (3) consultative, (4) participative, and (5) delegative—displayed by large samples of managers, Bass, Valenzi, Farrow, and Solomon (1975) found manipulative leadership least satisfying to subordinates and least effective with them.

    The Bass Handbook of Leadership

  • The Bass-Valenzi model Bass, 1976 proposes that whether leaders are directive, negotiative, consultative, participative, or delegative depends on their perceptions of the system’s inputs and the relations within the system.

    The Bass Handbook of Leadership


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