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VEGFR1 signaling is required for endothelial-cell survival, while VEGFR2 regulates capillary tube formation.
In the early stages of development, when blood flow is present in the aortic vessels, but the vascular linkages between the two arches have yet to be established, the stimulus provided by active blood flow leads to expression of an endothelial-cell specific microRNA (mir-126).
S1P, which is up-regulated in tumor cells, also promotes tumor and endothelial-cell growth, angiogenesis and inflammation, and, importantly, it prevents apoptosis (cell death).