from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

  • noun biochemistry Any of various derivatives of glucuronic acid formed during the metabolism of phenols etc that serve to remove them from the bloodstream


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  • If the urine is acidic, the weak acids (such as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates) are less ionized and undergo reabsorption with renal excretion reduced.

    Excretion of toxicants

  • "Excretion of bisphenol A-glucuronide into the small intestine and deconjugation in the cecum of the rat."

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  • The primary Phase II reactions are: glucuronide conjugation - most important reaction sulfate conjugation - important reaction acetylation amino acid conjugation glutathione conjugation methylation


  • The glucuronide conjugation of aniline is illustrated below:


  • With 7-10 times the recommended therapeutic level, the sulphate and glucuronide conjugation pathways become saturated and more of the toxic metabolite is formed.


  • At normal doses, approximately 96% of acetaminophen is biotransformed to non-toxic metabolites by sulfate and glucuronide conjugation.


  • The glucuronide conjugates are generally quite hydrophilic and are excreted by the kidney or bile, depending on the size of the conjugate.


  • However, enzymes in the intestinal flora are capable of hydrolyzing some glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, which can release the less-polar compounds that may then be reabsorbed.

    Excretion of toxicants

  • The preparation using human liver microsomes converted BPA to the glucuronide metabolite at a significantly lower rate than did the rat microsomes.

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  • In contrast, lorazepam and oxazepam are excreted unconjugated, or as the glucuronide, and have a half-life of 12 to 18 hours.

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