from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

  • noun a Chinese polearm with the blade mounted on top of the pole (as opposed to on the side like most European polearms).


from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

From Mandarin 关刀 (guāndāo, "Guan Yu's halberd")


  • In a process popularly called guandao ( "official turnaround"), officials would arrange to procure raw materials or commodities at the fixed price and then "turn around" to reap large illicit profits by selling on the private market.

    A Great Leap Backward?

  • He Qinglian also shows how the plunder of state resources in the 1990s was several times as frenzied as the guandao of the 1980s had been.

    A Great Leap Backward?

  • Popular protests against guandao had a modest effect in the late 1980s, at least until the suppression of the 1989 Tiananmen movement.

    A Great Leap Backward?


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