from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
- noun a
Chinese polearmwith the blade mounted on top of the pole (as opposed to on the side like most European polearms).
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
In a process popularly called guandao ( "official turnaround"), officials would arrange to procure raw materials or commodities at the fixed price and then "turn around" to reap large illicit profits by selling on the private market.
He Qinglian also shows how the plunder of state resources in the 1990s was several times as frenzied as the guandao of the 1980s had been.
Popular protests against guandao had a modest effect in the late 1980s, at least until the suppression of the 1989 Tiananmen movement.