from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- adj. Having an odd integer as a numerator and 2 as a denominator. Used of a fraction.
Sorry, no etymologies found.
Or as hard as investigating the properties of Fermions, half-integral spin particles that obey the Pauli principle, and Bosons, integral spin particles that don't, or the anomalous magnetic moments of leptons, or the quark structure of matter.
The properties ascribed to electrons, for instance, such as their charge and half-integral spin, were themselves responses to quite specific experimental findings involving discharge tube phenomena and spectra.
Fermions have half-integral spin and are described by wavefunctions that are antisymmetric in the exchange of two particles, i.e. the wavefunctions change sign when two particles change places, and they follow what is called
Particles obeying these would of course have half-integral spin, and the ultimate state would be one in which ghosts of opposite spin had paired up to occupy correctly the energy states available.
The number '' j '' is integral when '' m '' is integral and half-integral when
The discrete quantum number '' m '' is integral or half-integral, depending on whether '' j '' is integral or half-integral.
'' l '' max − kmax, so that '' b '' is integral or half-integral.