from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. An agent or substance, such as an antibody or a bacterial toxin, that causes the destruction of red blood cells, thereby liberating hemoglobin.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. Any substance (often an exotoxin) that damages the membranes of red blood cells and thus releases hemoglobin
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A cellular product, having the character of an amboceptor, which causes the dissolution of the red corpuscles of the blood in the presence of a suitable complement.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. any substance that can cause lysis (destruction) of erythrocytes (red blood cells) and the release of their hemoglobin
Sorry, no etymologies found.
In fact, Bayley stayed away from DNA sequencing as a professional courtesy to Branton, making progress in chemically modifying the hemolysin to use it as a single-molecule sensor for drugs, chemicals, and metal ions.
The technique involves creating a lipid bilayer membrane similar to those in living cells, and "drilling" a pore in it with a protein (alpha-hemolysin) produced by the Staphyloccoccus aureus bacteria specifically to penetrate cell membranes.
Because the dimensions of the lipid bilayer and the alpha-hemolysin pore, as well as the required amount of electrical current, are at the nanoscale level, the "single-molecule mass spectrometry" technology may one day be incorporated into "lab-on-a-chip" molecular analyzers and single-strand DNA sequencers.
Graphic showing a lipid bilayer membrane (blue) with an alpha-hemolysin nanopore.
The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of infection in humans, secretes a toxin known as alpha-hemolysin that kills human cells by forming holes in their membranes, through which chemicals essential to survival leak out.
** Alpha-hemolysin, produced by the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria
(A, B1, B2, D), the presence of the hly (hemolysin) gene and the antibiotic resistance pattern, that the E. coli population structure was modified not only by the hydrological conditions (dry versus wet periods, rainfall events), but also by how the watershed was used
The new model addresses both cylindrical pores and tapering pores that simulate the α - hemolysin membrane channel.
Falzano L, Frank C, Donelli G, Matarrese P, et al. (1999) Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin modulates cytoskeletal organization and calcium homeostasis in intestinal cultured cells.
Goshima K, Takeda Y, Sugino Y, Miwatani T (1976) Demonstration of the cardiotoxicity of the thermostable direct hemolysin (lethal toxin) produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus.