from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- adj. Having the floral parts, such as sepals, petals, and stamens, borne on the receptacle beneath the ovary.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- adj. Of a flower, having a superior ovary, attached directly to the receptacle like other floral parts.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- adj. Inserted below the pistil or pistils; -- said of sepals, petals, and stamens; having the sepals, petals, and stamens inserted below the pistil; -- said of a flower or a plant.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- In botany, situated beneath the pistil: applied to parts which, as in the Ranunculaceæ, are inserted or borne on the receptacle of the flower, which has the sepals, petals, numerous stamens, and many or few pistils, all distinct and unconnected and inserted upon the torus or axis, with the pistils at the summit.
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The first advance is to a definite number of parts and a permanently shortened axis, in the arrangement termed hypogynous, in which all the whorls are quite distinct from each other.
Of more interest is the alteration in the position of these organs which sometimes necessarily accrues from the elongation of the axis and the disjunction of the calyx; thus, in proliferous roses the stamens become strictly hypogynous, instead of remaining perigynous.
Hypogynous flowers become perigynous by adhesion, or by lack of separation; perigynous ones become hypogynous by an early detachment from the receptacle that bears them, or by the arrested development of an ordinarily cup-like receptacle.
When the plants in which these occurrences happen most frequently are compared together, it may be seen that partial or entire suppression of the floral envelopes, calyx, and corolla, is far more commonly met with in the polypetalous and hypogynous groups than in the gamopetalous or epigynous series.
In the same manner, the corolla and androecium may be concrete at the base, so that the stamens are for convenience 'sake described as inserted into the tube of the corolla, though it is generally admitted that both stamens and petals are really hypogynous, and it is not usual to consider the corolla-tube up to the divergence of the stamens as part of the receptacle.
Of the Polypetalae, series 1, Thalamiflorae, is characterized by hypogynous petals and stamens, and contains 34 orders distributed in 6 larger groups or cohorts.
Scitamineae, and passing through the petaloid hypogynous orders
Advance has been along two lines, markedly in relation to insect-pollination, one of which has culminated in the hypogynous epipetalous bicarpellate forms with dorsiventral often large and loosely arranged flowers such as occur in Scrophulariaceae, and the other in the epigynous bicarpellate small-flowered families of which the Compositae represent the most elaborate type.
Ovary inserted on an hypogynous disk, with 2 biovulate compartments.
It is useful to be able to classify a flower and to know that the buttercup belongs to the Family Ranunculaceae, with petals free and definite, stamens hypogynous and indefinite, pistil apocarpous.