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I wrote before on the Qur'anic word "jahannam" hell in a post about those who shouted "Ila Jahannam" to Saddam at the time of his execution.
Our daily struggle with the haqq (good) and batil (evil) includes our desires since they can take us to either janhah or jahannam.
We have made many things our aim in life, a career, owning ones own house, the perfect family, ease and tranquillity but these things may take us to jahannam if they are placed before Allah
But at the same time, a distinction is made b / t rulings in this life [eg, marriage / janaza prayer / etc], for which "kafir" could be translated as "non-Muslim," versus outcome in next life [jahannam], for which "kafir" could be translated as one who rejects Allah and His messenger (peace be upon him) after having understood the message clearly, in its pristine form.