from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- In hydraulics, receiving water at its circumference about opposite the center or middle: said of a water-wheel with a horizontal axis, in which the relation of the diameter of the wheel to the available head makes the type intermediate between the breast-wheel and the under-shot.
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Technical Efficiency: highest with overshot water wheels, approx. 70 % middleshot water wheels approx. 60 % lowest for undershot water wheels at approx. 32 - 38 %
They are basically differentiated as undershot, middleshot and overshot water wheels with horizontal axis; water wheels with vertical axis
Overshot and middleshot water wheels (wheels with scoops): containers attached at the periphery of the water wheel fill with water from the feeding stream and rotate the wheel under the influence of leverage forces due to the added weight and impact of the water.
Location Requirements: demand For water and vertical elevation difference as follows: overshot wheels: approx. 1 m plus wheel diameter middleshot wheel: radius of wheel undershot wheel: no elevation-drop necessary at higher flow velocities