from The Century Dictionary.
- noun The act of nasalizing or uttering with a nasal sound.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English.
- noun The act of nasalizing, or the state of being nasalized.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
- noun phonetics, uncountable the articulation of a vowel or
continuantconsonant in such a way that air flows through the nose at the same time as it flows through the mouth
- noun countable a particular instance of such change
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- noun the act of nasalizing; the utterance of sounds modulated by the nasal resonators
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
Currently, Breton is spoken in the French region of Brittany as a dialect, with loans from French and nasalization having been incorporated.
A cursory look on Google reveals that even Frisian follows German on this "wolkom yn", whilst Welsh insists on "croeso i [+lenition]" rather than "croeso yn [+nasalization]".
Would the pharyngeal have caused the nasalization (I've read nasalization may develop from pharyngeals and pharyngealization diachronically), or was it the PSem final *-m via regressive assimilation (and subsequent loss of the segment itself), or was the vowel in the second syllable syncopated and the newly arisen cluster metathesized (of course, with the necessary devoicing of *b)...
Especially, whether they could arise from non-labial clusters in any way via effects like, say, affective nasalization, etc.
I may be off track here but it seems to me that what these three environments have in common is the fact that modifications of the vocal tract brought about by pharyngealization and nasalization both have the effect of expanding the size of the resonance chamber thus lowering the frequency of the vowel.
I'm not sure how I was expecting morae to make their appearance, but that speaker's Japanese (as presented during elicitation sessions) was syllable based enough so that anything else never entered our deliberations (final n tended to be realized as the nasalization of the previous vowel, hardly in line with the standard description of final n as equal in length with a syllable ...)
So nearly universal is this nasalization in the United States that certain American lexicographers have sought to found the term upon bran and not upon brand.
e~ e with some nasalization not common, but not rare in more formal registers