from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • n. A genus of twining shrubs of the order Verbenaceæ and tribe Verbeneæ, characterized by racemed flowers, the ovary of two cells, each with one ovule, and the calyx greatly enlarged in fruit.


Sorry, no etymologies found.


  • Dominant deciduous species include: hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia), oak (Quercus cerris, Q. libani, Q. trojana, Q. petrea ssp. pinnatiloba), and many maple species (Acer hyrcanum, A. platonoides, A. campestre, and A. monspessulanum).

    Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests

  • Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) is the main canopy species, with sweet chestnut (Castenea sativa), sessile oak (Quercus petrea ssp. iberica), Acer leatum, A. cappadocicum, Caucasian elm (Zelkova carpinifolia), lime tree (Tilia spp.) and Caucasian wing nut (Pterocarya fraxinifolia) also penetrating to the canopy.

    Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests


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