from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. See phantasm.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. Alternative form of phantasm.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. A phantasm.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A phantasm.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. a ghostly appearing figure
- n. something existing in perception only
In any case, it is abundantly clear that, in many even if not all cases, Aristotele uses "phantasma" to refer to what we now call a mental image.
"Shakespeare seems to use it ( 'phantasma') in this passage in the sense of nightmare, which it bears in Italian."
So hour after hour passed, through which, between vain attempts to sleep, I managed to wade through many pages of Rosny's Le Termite -- a not very cheerful proceeding, I must say, concerned as it is with the microscopic and over-elaborate recital of Noel Servaise's tortured nerves, bodily pains, and intellectual phantasma.
However, Aristotle's use of phantasma seems to collapse this distinction.
Aristotle's Greek word, that is commonly and traditionally translated as "[mental] image" is “phantasma”
Very arguably, Aristotle's views about imagery (phantasmata) cannot be fully understood in isolation from his views about imagination (phantasia), which he defined as “(apart from any metaphorical sense of the word) the process by which we say that an image [phantasma] is presented to us” (De Anima 428a 1-4).
Christianity; the phantasma, the shade (not the soul) of tile dead.
A garland of betony worn at night was a specific against phantasma or delusions and a head poultice of crushed teasel a spiky plant with hooked spines would relieve the symptoms of the frenzy.20 Another popular belief was that a rosted Mous, eaten, doth heale Franticke persons.21
Thought, Aristotle insists, always requires a phantasma.
Once the phantasma of the object becomes an abstracted form in the possible intellect, it is wholly insulated from the diletto of the anima sensitiva (21-28).