from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- adj. Chemistry Having four valences.
- adj. Chemistry Having a valence of four; tetravalent.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- adj. Having a valence of four.
- n. Any quadrivalent chromosome.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- adj. Having a valence of four; capable of combining with, being replaced by, or compared with, four monad atoms; tetravalent; -- said of certain atoms and radicals.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- In chem., noting an atom the equivalence of which is four, or an element one atom of which is equivalent, in combining power, to four atoms of hydrogen; tetradic; tetratomic.
- n. A quadrivalent atom or element.
Sorry, no etymologies found.
Soldan and colleagues say that genital warts "exert a considerable impact on health services, a large proportion of which could be prevented through immunisation using the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine".
Cervarix is bivalent, protecting against two strains of human papillomavirus HPV that can trigger cervical cancer, but Gardasil is quadrivalent, protecting against four.
"Describe the effects of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine among women between the ages of 24 and 45 years."
-- Women's Health: Merck expects to benefit from a solid portfolio of women's health products including GARDASIL [human papillomavirus quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) vaccine, recombinant], a broad range of contraceptive options and biologic and small molecule fertility drugs, which will allow it to strengthen relationships with women's healthcare providers.
~ Papillomavirus Vaccine Could Reduce Rate Of Vulval And Vaginal Cancers -- "Administration of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus HPV vaccine has proven effective in preventing high-grade vulval and vaginal lesions that can lead to cancers in those areas, conclude authors of a Article published in this week's edition of The Lancet."
Friedrich A. Kekulé (182996) published Über die Konstitution und die Metamorphosen der chemischen Verbindungen und über die chemische Natur des Kohlenstoffs, in which he recognized that carbon is quadrivalent, and that carbon atoms link together to form long chains that serve as skeletons for organic molecules.
This analogy is certainly not due to chance; it rather confirms the opinion which I have put forward in connection with my researches on the selenites, on certain chloro-platinates and chloro-platinites, etc., that the elements of the rare earths form a series of quadrivalent metals.
Thus, Carbon is quadrivalent in the methane-molecule, which consists of one atom of carbon combined with four atoms of hydrogen; and Oxygen is divalent in the water-molecule, which consists of one atom of oxygen combined with two atoms of hydrogen.
There is no need to rehearse these powers much further; though not one-tenth of the supposed innate properties of this infinitesimal infinite have been recited -- properties which are expressed by the words atomicity, quantivilence, monad, dryad, univalent, perissad, quadrivalent, and twenty other terms, each expressing some endowment of power in this in visible atom.
This led to the addition of a second B lineage strain in a quadrivalent formulation which may reduce influenza morbidity and mortality.