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Each of the bottom rolls carries at its end a large spur-wheel, these spur-wheels, which are on opposite sides of the machine, each gearing into a pinion on a shaft which runs from end to end below the rolls, and which is itself geared to the shaft carrying the belt pulleys, as shown.
On the spur-wheel shaft was a friction-gear, driving the hoisting-reel; this reel was mounted on sliding blocks, so that hoisting was done by putting it in gear, the empty load being dropped by a friction-band.
There are two ropes from the wheel-shaft to a counter-shaft, and four ropes to the fly-wheel shaft, on which is the pinion driving the spur-wheel attached to the pitman of the pump-bob.
The water-wheel moved only in one direction; the pinion on the wheel-shaft drove the spur-wheel, to which the pitman of the pump-bob was attached.
And in this modified form it applies equally well to the original arrangement of Ferguson's paradox, if we abandon the artificial distinction between "absolute" and "relative" rotations of the planet-wheels, and regard a spur-wheel, like any other, as rotating on its axis when it turns in its bearings; the action of the device shown in Fig. 18 being thus explained by saying that the wheel
A spur-wheel, 6½in. in diameter, moved by a double cylinder-engine ... turns the turret, guns and all, a rod connected with the running gear of the engine enabling the runner to control the aim.