from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. One layer or stratum superimposed on another.
- n. Linguistics The language of a later, invading people imposed on and leaving features in an indigenous language.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. A stratum that is on top of another
- n. A language imposed upon a population that previously spoke another language
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. A stratum, or layer, above another.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A stratum or layer above another, or resting on something else.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. any stratum or layer superimposed on another
- n. the language of a later invading people that is imposed on an indigenous population and contributes features to their language
The whole superstratum, which is oftentimes many feet in thickness, consists of the debris of vegetable and animal matter; for these swamps are scarcely more noted for their luxuriant vegetation, than they are for their abundance of insects and reptiles.
[M3] “is on” means the substratum-superstratum relation.
Like in France, where the result of the contact of Gaulish Latin, as a spoken substratum, with superstratum Frankish only surfaced in writing in the ninth century after the Carolingian Reform, it needed a strong external impetus to adjust the written language to the spoken practice.
The formation of Israeli was NOT the result of language contact between spoken Hebrew and a powerful superstratum, such as English in the case of some vernacular Arabics, Kurdish in the case of Neo-Aramaic, or French in the case of English.
I therein said that I should visit these hills on my way down the river; and I am fully convinced from close examination, that they are a part of the same original superstratum, which I therein described, though 7 or 800 miles separated from them.
A plain which lay between us and the sea appeared to consist of barren sand, covered towards the sea with a superstratum of salt.
The soil is generally deep, more or less yellow, and somewhat clayey; the hollows having a thin superstratum of black mould.
The superstratum was very light, and brownish black, the remainder yellowish brown, the yellow tints as well as the stiffness increasing downwards.
On leaving Surruk Durrah we entered the narrow gorge before alluded to; it is five miles long, and has precipitous sides, at the bottom of which rushed a foaming torrent: the formation of the hills was slate with a superstratum of limestone.
"Colonial Magazine," vol.ii. p. 309, says the finest Indian corn he ever saw was in the Himalayas of the Sikim-range, where the soil consists of a substratum of decomposed _mica_ from the under or rocky stratum, with a superstratum of from three to six inches of decayed vegetable matter, from leaves, &c., of the ancient forests.
The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom Considered in Their Various Uses to Man and in Their Relation to the Arts and Manufactures; Forming a Practical Treatise & Handbook of Reference for the Colonist, Manufacturer, Merchant, and Consumer, on the Cultivation, Preparation for Shipment, and Commercial Value, &c. of the Various Substances Obtained From Trees and Plants, Entering into the Husbandry of Tropical and Sub-tropical Regions, &c.