"Chimpanzees, obviously, have basal ganglia. Birds have basal ganglia. So do rats. When rats carry out genetically preprogrammed sequences of grooming steps, they are using the basal ganglia. If their basal ganglia are damaged, then their separate grooming moves are left intact, but their ability to execute a sequence of them is disrupted. (Lieberman calls their grooming pattern UGG, universal grooming grammar.)"