from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • n. The vertebral artery of any animal.


Sorry, no etymologies found.


  • Of particular interest are several species limited to the very high altitudes and low temperatures: water rana Rana vertebralis, Lesotho river frog R. dracomantana (VU), Drakensberg stream frog Strongylopus hymenopus (VU), Drakensberg toad Bufo gariepensis nubicolus (VU) and dwarf dainty frog Cacosternum nanum parvum (VU).

    UKhahlamba Drakensberg Park, South Africa

  • Three river frogs (Rana dracomontana, R. vertebralis, and Stronglopus hymenopus) are endemic to fast-flowing streams of the alti-montane grassland.

    Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands

  • Other species found further south in the coastal range with narrow distributions ranges include Insuetophrynus acarpicus, Eusophus vertebralis, and Telmatobufo australis.

    Valdivian temperate forests

  • The vertebral artery (a. vertebralis) (Fig. 514), is the first branch of the subclavian, and arises from the upper and back part of the first portion of the vessel.

    VI. The Arteries. 4. The Arteries of the Upper Extremity. a. The Subclavian Artery

  • The vertebral vein (v. vertebralis) is formed in the suboccipital triangle, from numerous small tributaries which spring from the internal vertebral venous plexuses and issue from the vertebral canal above the posterior arch of the atlas.

    VII. The Veins. 3b. 2. The Veins of the Neck


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