The transition of the spelling from Chicano to Xicanx(a/o), which is by no means total, is in large part due to the rise of Chicana Feminism, also known as Xicanisma. Ana Castillo, a pioneer author in the field, coined the term using an ”X” at the beginning instead of “Ch” as a means to more directly identify with the indigenous etymology of the term. Her works, along with many other Xicana authors, pushed the Xicano conversation into deeper consideration about the economic and cultural oppression of Latina women (who are still the most underpaid demographic in the United States) even within the Chicano Movement itself.
As Xicanista intellectuals incorporated queer and gender theory, the second “x” was used to be more inclusive of non-binary Xicanxs, as has occurred with the term Latinx. All these new considerations have transformed Chicanismo into a new Xicanismo.