from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. A granular protein found in the endosperm of many seeds or forming the outermost layer in cereal grains.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. The protein content of the embryo, endosperm, or perisperm of cereals
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. An albuminoid substance which occurs in minute grains (“protein granules”) in maturing seeds and tubers; -- supposed to be a modification of protoplasm.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. The minute albuminoid granules (protein) which are found, in connection with starch and oily matter, in the endosperm of ripe seeds and the cotyledons of the embryo.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. granular protein in outermost layer of endosperm of many seeds or cereal grains
The cookie base also uses part of the wheat kernel called the aleurone, which contains the grain's highest concentration of vitamins and minerals.
Some authors point out that microelements (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) are likely to be uniformly distributed in the grain while macro elements (phosphorus (P), K, Ca and Mg) seem to be present mainly in the external layers of the grain (aleurone and pericarp).
Just underneath the seed coat is the aleurone layer, only one to four cells thick and yet containing oil, minerals, protein, vitamins, enzymes, and flavor out of proportion to its size.
Most rice is milled to remove the bran and most of the germ, and then “polished” with fine wire brushes to grind away the aleurone layer and its oil and enzymes.
Brown Rice Brown rice is unmilled, its bran, germ, and aleurone layers intact.
And in the case of flours, the high lipid concentrations in the germ and aleurone layer shorten the shelf life of whole-grain flours substantially.
Blue, purple, and red kernels carry water-soluble anthocyanins in their aleurone layer, the nutrient-rich cell layer just under the hull.
The glucans are found mainly in the outer layers of the endosperm under the aleurone layer, and so are especially concentrated in oat bran.
The germ and the bran—which in practice include the aleurone layer just underneath it—together account for most of the fiber, oil, and B vitamins contained in the whole grain, as well as some 25% of its protein.
The more of the outer aleurone, bran, and germ that makes it into the flour, the darker and denser the bread and the stronger the whole-grain flavor.