from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition.
- noun A member of a class of higher Russian nobility that until the time of Peter I headed the civil and military administration of the country and participated in an early duma.
from The Century Dictionary.
- noun A personal title given to the highest class of Russian officials previous to the reign of Peter the Great.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English.
- noun A member of a Russian aristocratic order abolished by Peter the Great. Also, one of a privileged class in Roumania.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
- noun historical A rank of
aristocracy(second only to princes) in Russia, Bulgaria and Romania.
from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
No matter how much money there is to be made in Russia these days, it ultimately doesn't count for much the day a boyar or simple chinovnik decides to take it away.
They attach themselves as a rule to some great noble or boyar, and call themselves by his name.
All fire — simply explosive as gunpowder — and stately as a boyar!
This he afterwards explained by saying that to a boyar the pride of his house and name is his own pride, that their glory is his glory, that their fate is his fate.
The new tsar acted against the jealousy of other boyar families with intrigue and persecution.
The regency was in the hands of his mother, Helen Glinski (of Lithuanian family), until 1538, and then fell into the hands of powerful noble (boyar) families, notably the Shuiskys and Belskys.
The death of Boris at this crucial time initiated a period of utmost confusion, during which boyar families struggled for supremacy while their position was challenged by the poorer classes (led by the Cossacks) and while foreigners (Poles and Swedes) took full advantage of the situation to further their own interests.
The Russians then deposed Basil, and a boyar faction offered the throne to Wladyslaw, son of Sigismund.
Peter succeeded to leadership of the movement after the murder of Asen by boyar (i.e., noble) conspirators.
The advocacy of the dismemberment of "bourgeois-boyar" Greater Romania, to which the author alludes, was perpetrated, in various articles, signed by some of those who were the power behind the (communist) throne, namely Timotei Marin (Tima) and Ghita Moscu, who demanded that the Act of December 1, 1918, sanctioning the unification of Transylvania with Romania, be declared null and void.