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  • * [3] The cas-chrom was a rude combination of a lever for the removal of rocks, a spade to cut the earth, and a foot-plough to turn it.

    The Life of Thomas Telford Smiles, Samuel, 1812-1904 1867


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  • A foot plough, described in Sir John Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland (1791-1799) thusly: The cas-chrom, or 'crooked foot', is a crooked piece of wood, the lower end somewhat thick, about 2 1/2 ft in length, pretty straight, and armed at the end with iron, made thin and square to cut the earth. The shaft above the crook is generally straight, being 6 ft long, and tapering upwards to the end, which is slender; just below the crook or angle, which is an obtuse one, there must be a hole, wherein a strong peg must be fixed for the workman's right foot, in order to push the instrument into the earth, while, in the meantime, standing upon his left foot, and holding the shaft firm with both hands, when he has in this manner driven the head far enough into the earth with one bend of his body, he raises the clod by the iron-headed part of his instrument, making use of the heel or hind part of the head as a fulcrum - in so doing turns it over always towards the left hand, and then proceeds to push for another clod in the same form.

    June 7, 2010