from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. A caustic acidic crystalline compound, NHCNH, prepared by treating calcium cyanamide with sulfuric acid.
- n. Calcium cyanamide.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. A chemical compound, NH2CN; a white crystalline solid, soluble in water, having many commercial applications including fertilizer
- n. Any derivative of this compound in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by an alkyl or aryl group
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A white crystalline body (CN.NH2) prepared by the action of ammonia on cyanogen chlorid.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. a weak soluble dibasic acid (the parent acid of cyanamide salts)
- n. a compound used as a fertilizer and as a source of nitrogen compounds
Sorry, no etymologies found.
Hydrogen cyanamide is a toxin that can induce nausea, vomiting and parasympathetic hyperactivity.
… This enhanced alcohol drinking which persisted could have profound implications for the abstinent alcoholic patient undergoing cyanamide or Antabuse therapy, because the treatment with either of these … inhibitors reportedly may result in a subsequent craving for alcohol.
They found that when nondrinking rats received low doses of cyanamide by injection, there was a significant increase in their later alcohol preference.
The explanation of the low compliance rate for Antabuse may have been found by R. D. Myers and E. C. Critcher in an experiment using cyanamide, a substance similar to Antabuse that inhibits the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase.
These findings suggest that an increase in the level of one or more biogenic aldehydes TIQs induced endogenously by repeated injections of cyanamide, both in the brain and in the periphery, can induce a prolonged enhancement of alcohol drinking.
Indeed it appears that calcium cyanamide did not come fully up to expectations as a fertilizer, but since its nitrogen content can be converted to ammonia relatively easily, this has not so far proved to be an obstacle to the application of the method to an ever-increasing extent.
It has been shown that ammonia synthesis is not only more generally applicable than the conventional methods of converting the nitrogen contained in the air into fertilizer, i.e. the manufacture of calcium nitrate or crude calcium cyanamide, but is also now economically more advantageous in almost all countries.
Whereas it was considered a tremendous success in the past that the nitrogen fertilizer obtained from the nitrogen in the air, e.g. in the form of calcium cyanamide could be sold at the same price as Chile saltpetre, readymade by Nature, the synthetic manufacture of ammonia or ammonium sulphate has in recent years resulted in an actual reduction of the previous, certainly somewhat artificial price of Chile saltpetre.
Heated in the electric furnace in a current of air, it yields calcium cyanamide (see CYANAMIDE).
Modern chemists, however, made it from nitrogen of the very air we breathe, and in Germany it was made during the war from ammonia and calcium cyanamide, both of which may be obtained from the air.