from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- transitive v. To pronounce (a normally voiced sound) without vibration of the vocal chords so as to make it wholly or partly voiceless.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- v. To pronounce a word with little movement of the vocal chords
- v. To remove the voice flag from a user on IRC, preventing them from sending messages to the channel.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- v. utter with tense vocal chords
As they expanded, they began, for inscrutable Frankish reasons, to devoice word-final obstruents this is the blue isogloss, thereby establishing Frankish as its own distinct, highly conservative dialect.
Theoretically, the stemfinal *bʰ would devoice to *p in original *skerbʰ- once speakers of Indo-European no longer were consciously aware of the historical connection with *gʰrebʰ-, and this would especially occur after *s- came to be irregularly omitted and phonotactic "stop voicing harmony" pressures took over.
Now, the question is, did they continue to devoice word-final obstruents?
They might go devoice hoping to find a better partner, but since they think it's all others' fault, they will repeat the same error over and over.
There's another possible problem with this version of the hypothesis, namely why the loss of creakiness common in IE affects no Semitic language, and most of them rather devoice the sounds again.
Some googling turn'd up a paper arguing for aspirate devoicing postdating Grassman's law, on the basis of roots where G.L. doesn't produce alternation and which do not devoice in Greek.
One is to devoice *dʰ entirely to *tʰ (as in Greek); another is to somehow fill in the absent voiceless aspirate *tʰ (as in Sanskrit).
Maybe I should add for completeness, that if Grassman's Law surfaced already during this hypothetical common "phonation shift" between Proto-Hellenic and Proto-Indo-Iranian, then forms like Greek títhēmi would have to be explained as resulting from analogical pressures that forced *d to devoice along with *dʰ in the underlying post-Grassman's-Law form, *dídʰehmi.
It can now sense a connected devoice with a dead battery and provide a trickle charge to enable the device to come back to life and establish a connection.
ich recycle du recyclest er/sie recycles wir recycle ihr recycle sie recycle using an -ed past form though seems pointless since the vast majority of Germans will always devoice the final anyway.