from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. An interaction between nonallelic genes, especially an interaction in which one gene suppresses the expression of another.
- n. A film that forms over the surface of a urine specimen.
- n. The suppression of a bodily discharge or secretion.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. The modification of the expression of a gene by another unrelated one
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A substance swimming on the surface of urine: opposed to hypostasis, or sediment.
- n. An arrested or stationary condition in the ancestral history of a group of organisms.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. the suppression of a gene by the effect of an unrelated gene
These genetic interactions, termed epistasis, can impact all aspects of organisms and play
There is "epistasis," which means that some gene variants behave differently depending on what variants of other genes are present, but this changes the outcome little in practice.
IC systems have components that exihibit this kind of epistasis, they exhibit numerous interdependencies.
Yet, at least at the individual level, nature's contribution cannot be quantified; too many parts of the equation, such as epistasis, or the process whereby one gene suppresses the expression of another, elude measurement.
Whitlock & Bourguet, Factors affecting the genetic load in Drosophila: synergistic epistasis and correlations among fitness components, Evolution 2000
Nachman argues a "fix" is "synergistic epistasis", but I hope to show (with lots of help from Walter ReMine and others), this won't fix the problem.
Do you think that no real scientist has ever considered the effects of pleiotropy and epistasis?
Leaving aside the plain fact that "unselected" mutations regularly persist due to drift, epistasis, "hitchhiking" with selected mutations, etc., let's edit your sentence to make it accurate: "If Behe is right, then a double CCC will never happen ALL AT ONCE."
What I'm referring to is what this paper paper and the one you referenced calls "reciprocal sign epistasis".
The basic gist of what I'm saying is that IC systems create multiple peaks on a fitness landscape, and "The presence of multiple peaks indicates reciprocal sign epistasis, and may cause severe frustration of evolution".