from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. A usually elongated depression between geologic faults.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. An elongated block of the Earth's crust that has dropped relative to the surrounding blocks
- n. Plural form of graben.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. In geology, a trough-like area caused by the down-throw of a crustal fault-block.
Faults like these cause troughs to form, called graben, of which the heavily shadowed one is a good example.
What the new images show are the existence of "graben," massive valleys crossing the crater in an east-west direction, some up to a mile and a half wide.
They show that the bounding faults of the "graben" cut the Chumstick Formation and that the southwestern bounding fault really is a composed of northwesterly trending reverse faults and younger northerly strike-slip faults, both of which cut northwesterly striking folds in the Chumstick Formation.
Look closely along the western shore of Fecunditatis where you will see many such graben features.
Chances are this "little runway" was once a graben that which was flooded with magma.
The northern half includes a lower eastern mountain range 800-1,500 m high, nearly cut off by the 15 km wide Sungai Penuh valley graben and is about 75 km wide.
It covers most of the West Barisan, West Alas and East Barisan ranges and is nearly divided by the Alas valley graben. 40% of the Park, mainly in the north, is steep and over 1,500 m; 12% of the Park only, in the lower southern half, is below 600 m but for 25 km runs along the coast.
This isostatic rebound causes vertical uplift and the tensional forces due to the movement of the crust creates normal and graben faults.
The mountains of western Anatolia extend from east to west and form a horst-graben system with deep furrows created by rivers such as the Edremit, Bakırçay, Gediz, Küçükmenderes and Büyük Menderes.
Each block moves vertically to compensate for the tensional forces producing normal and graben faults.